Formatting a testable hypothesis What Is a Real Hypothesis? A hypothesis is a tentative statement that proposes a possible explanation to some phenomenon or event. A useful hypothesis is a testable statement, which may include a prediction. A hypothesis should not be confused with a theory. Theories are general explanations based on a large amount of data. For example, the theory of evolution applies to all living things and is based on wide range of observations.
He was active in an association dedicated to Immanuel Velikovsky , catastrophism and historical revisionism , Gesellschaft zur Rekonstruktion der Menschheits- und Naturgeschichte. Outside of his publications related to revised chronology, he has edited the works of Egon Friedell. Before focusing on the early medieval period, Illig published various proposals for revised chronologies of prehistory and of Ancient Egypt.
His proposals received prominent coverage in German popular media in the s. His Das erfundene Mittelalter also received scholarly recensions, but was universally rejected as fundamentally flawed by historians. Also in , he published on an unrelated topic of art history , on German Renaissance master Anton Pilgram , but again proposing revisions to conventional chronology, and arguing for the abolition of the art historical category of Mannerism.
Mate choice, also known as intersexual selection, is an evolutionary process in which selection is dependent on the attractiveness of an individual’s phenotypic traits. Evolutionary change is possible because the qualities that are desired in a mate are more frequently passed on .
Even to ask this question seems to cheapen the idea of discovery. Why does quality control have such a small place at the statistical table? Right now I want to draw the connections between quality control and scientific inquiry. Consider some thread or sub-subfield of science, for example the incumbency advantage to take a political science example or embodied cognition to take a much-discussed example from psychology.
One of the key principles of quality control is to avoid getting faked out by variation—to avoid naive rules such as reward the winner and discard the loser—and instead to analyze and then work to reduce uncontrollable variation. Applying the ideas of quality control to threads of scientific research, the goal would be to get better measurement, and stronger links between measurement and theory—rather than to give prominence to surprising results and to chase noise.
From a quality control perspective, our current system of scientific publication and publicity is perverse: A good study will have low variance, of course. A bad study will have high variance. But what are the rewards? What gets published is not theta but the estimate. The higher the estimate or, more generally, the more dramatic the finding , the higher the reward! The result is an incentive to have noise.
The assumption that the geologic column is a base from which to calibrate the C dates is not wise. With a half-life of only years, carbon dating has nothing to do with dating the geological ages! Whether by sloppiness or gross ignorance, Dr. Hovind is confusing the carbon “clock” with other radiometric “clocks.
The Black Sea deluge is a hypothesized catastrophic rise in the level of the Black Sea circa BCE from waters from the Mediterranean Sea breaching a sill in the Bosphorus strait. The hypothesis was headlined when The New York Times published it in December It was later published in an academic journal in April While it is agreed that the sequence of events described by the.
The Birth of Jesus: Two Gospel Narratives Breadcrumb navigation: Transcript The Dating of the Gospels This slide graphically presents some important first-century dates and events, including the writing of and relationships among the Gospels. The earliest New Testament books, the letters written by Paul, were composed in the decade of the 50s.
In the mid s, James, Peter, and Paul are all killed. Peter and Paul likely perished during the persecution of the church in Rome by Nero. The deaths of these important church leaders likely encouraged the writing down of narratives about Jesus. In the year 70, Roman armies destroyed Jerusalem and its Temple, effectively ending a Jewish revolt against the Empire that had begun four years earlier.
Although some scholars disagree, the vast majority of researchers believe that Mark was the first Gospel to be written, sometime around the year This scholarly consensus holds that the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke were composed, independently of one another, sometime in the 80s or 90s. Both used a written form of the Gospel of Mark as source material for their own narratives.
Test of Martin’s overkill hypothesis using radiocarbon dates on extinct megafauna
Wayne Herschel – the proponent of the new hypothesis – has just found the remaining missing pyramids that will make his theory conclusive. This new scale interpretation displays some very ingenious mathematical adjustments explored in the book that must have been made intentionally by the pyramid builders, and speaks of an incredibly advanced very early civilisation.
This star map identified two pyramids at quite a distance from Giza Abu Rawash in the north and Zaweyet Al Aryan in the south to represent two of the Orion periphery stars Saiph and Bellatrix.
He is really good looking, funny, shows interest in learning more about me sadly uncommon! Physically, he is moving much slower than I would prefer. He stares at me a lot when we are together and it makes me feel uncomfortable, like he is waiting to kiss me instead of enjoying time hanging out together. We already had a talk about where things are going, and I told him his nervousness was making me feel uncomfortable and I wanted him to relax.
He brings up his awkwardness quite frequently. The real problem is that all this talk about being awkward makes me feel extremely angry and panicked.
Room , Valley Life Sciences Building University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, California, USA Coevolution between phytophagous insect antagonists and Carboniferous, Permian, and Triassic seed plant hosts at the level of their respective developmental tool kits with focus on selective forces that drive the logic of transcriptional regulation is proposed in the following essay to explain the origin and evolution of flowering plants and certain Holometabola.
I discuss potential coevolution of insect and seed plant helix-turn-helix proteins, specifically Engraled and Leafy enzymes that bind to cis-regulatory promoters controlling downstream expression of genes determining paedomorphic insect body patterns and plant cone and floral organ development. The picture of the rock slab on the left is of an indeterminate pentamerous fossil rosid flower Celastrales, Rosanae collected by Professor David L.
Origen, and others of the Alexandrian tradition, favored an approach to Old Testament theology that saw the entire work as an allegory—beneath any Old Testament text there could be found, if one looked hard enough, an allegorical reference to a New Testament event or person. While such a Christocentric view of the Old Testament is certainly laudable, this approach did not show respect for the fact that the books of the Old Covenant were written within a historical context by historical figures.
In the formative years of the church there were various attempts made at criticism of the Old Testament both inside and outside of the church. Some with Gnostic leanings declared the Old Testament to be the creation of a lesser god than the God of the New Testament. He doubted that anyone could prophecy with that degree of accuracy, so it must be an eyewitness account. It was not until after the Reformation, however, that the level of attack against the fidelity of the Old Testament was raised.
While there were, evidently, questions raised concerning the origins of the Old Testament books, many people looked to the church for their interpretation and for guidance in their understanding of these issues. The Reformation changed things. The authority of Rome as the interpreter of the Scriptures had been challenged. On the one hand, this meant that people recognized the fact that Scripture itself is its own interpreter.
On the other hand, this also meant that, in the eyes of some, people had license to develop their own ideas on the meaning and origin of Scriptural books apart from an external authority.
Beyond Hooper’s Hypothesis: hedgerow survey handbook updated
In a world where every idea seems divisive, it can help to know there are at least a few things that the world as a whole agrees on. Time, the calendar, and the basic idea that history as we know it happened pretty much like historians say it did are just a few of those things. I mean, after all, at the very least we can all agree that the year is , right?
According to German historian Heribert Illig, the year is actually , the Gregorian calendar is a lie, and a chunk of Middle Ages was completely made up.
Usage The words hypothesis, law, and theory refer to different kinds of statements that scientists make about natural phenomena. A hypothesis is a statement that attempts to explain a set of facts. It forms the basis for an experiment that is designed to test whether it is true. Suppose your friend Smedley’s room is a mess; your hypothesis might be that Smedley makes the room messy.
You could test this hypothesis with an experiment: A scientific law is a statement that is believed to be true all the time for a set of conditions. If Smedley’s room is always a mess when he is in it, you might propose a “Smedley’s Mess Law” stating that whenever Smedley is in his room, he will always make it messy. Laws have the power to predict what will happen under the conditions they apply to. A theory is a set of principles or statements devised to explain a whole group of observations or phenomena.
A theory thus tries to account for a wider variety of events than a law does. Broad acceptance of a theory comes when it has been repeatedly tested experimentally on new data and makes accurate predictions about them. If people noticed that it became messy everywhere Smedley went, it might lead to the theory that Smedley brings messiness wherever he goes.
This theory could be tested by bringing Smedley somewhere he’s never been.
10 Wacky Whoppers About the Origins of Popular 18th Century Phrases
These are K-Ar data obtained on glauconite, a potassium-bearing clay mineral that forms in some marine sediment. Woodmorappe fails to mention, however, that these data were obtained as part of a controlled experiment to test, on samples of known age, the applicability of the K-Ar method to glauconite and to illite, another clay mineral. He also neglects to mention that most of the 89 K-Ar ages reported in their study agree very well with the expected ages.
Evernden and others 43 found that these clay minerals are extremely susceptible to argon loss when heated even slightly, such as occurs when sedimentary rocks are deeply buried. As a result, glauconite is used for dating only with extreme caution. The ages from the Coast Range batholith in Alaska Table 2 are referenced by Woodmorappe to a report by Lanphere and others
The three archaologists and prehistorians are the American Homer L. At this stage, the obligatory term to designate this reconstruction was “theory”. Since the beginning of the last decade, however, more and more scholars have worked on the same line, testing and applying the theory successfully on an increasing number of geographic areas, prehistoric periods and cultural topics, bringing new evidence for the foundation of what seems now more appropriate to call a true “paradigm”: In addition, the founders of the Palaeolithic Continuity Theory have themselves contributed to a more articulated definition of the new paradigm see Alinei c, a, b, c, , , b, c, , b, , b, c, , , , b; Costa , , , , , b, The last and most authoritative version of this theory was the so called kurgan theory, elaborated by Marija Gimbutas, according to which the Proto-IE were the warrior pastoralists who built kurgan, i.
Gimbutas , , , From the steppe area, the Proto-IE kurgan conquerors would have then first invaded Southern Eastern Europe, then, in the 3rd millennium, after having evolved into the so called Battle Axe people, would have somehow erased most pre-existing languages, and brought IE languages all over Europe. By placing the arrival of the IEs in the 4th millennium, and the process of transformation from Proto-IE to separate language groups in the 3rd, the subsequent process, by which the separate language groups would evolve into the major attested languages, will inevitably take place in the II and I millennium that is in the Bronze and Iron Age.
Although most IE specialists are still reluctant to admit it, this chronology, as well as the scenario behind it, can now be considered as altogether obsolete. The evidence collected by archaeology in the last thirty years, in fact, overwhelmingly prove the absence of any large scale invasion in Europe, and the uninterrupted continuity of most Copper and Bronze Age cultures of Europe from Neolithic, and of most Neolithic cultures from Mesolithic and final Paleolithic.
The mass invasion of IE warriors according to Marija Gimbutas Archaeologists usually do not address linguistic issues. This is probably why, although firm conclusions about absence of invasions and cultural continuity already began to appear in the archaeological literature of the Seventies, historical linguists have continued to assume the traditional theory as an undisputed truth. Moreover, since farming originated in the Middle East, and archaeology does detect in southern Europe a modest migratory contribution from that direction, associated with the introduction of farming, Renfrew has concluded that these early farmers were the Proto-Indo-Europeans, responsible for the introduction of IE in southern and central Europe, and that the subsequent IE dispersal started from these two areas, along with the dispersal of farming techniques.
The philosophy behind this theory is thus that the Proto-Indo-Europeans, far from being warriors who invaded and conquered Europe by sheer military force, are instead the inventors of farming, who conquered Europe by cultural and intellectual superiority.
How Old is the Earth
Its main point was that “all mitochondrial DNAs stem from one woman” and that she probably lived around , years ago in Africa. When the media picked up from Wilson, one of the authors of the paper, that they had found the “Mitochondrial Eve” or “African Eve”, the story became a sensation. Have scientists found “the mother of us all”?
Most people know about the nuclei of cells and that the genetic inheritance from both parents are found in the nucleus.
January 21, iStock Even if you live in a big city, you probably see wildlife on a regular basis. Namely, you’re sure to run into a lot of squirrels , even in the densest urban areas. And if you happen to live on a college campus, well, you’re probably overrun with them. While some people might view them as adorable, others see them as persistent pests bent on chewing on and nesting in everything in sight. But in honor of National Squirrel Appreciation Day, here are 15 reasons you should appreciate the savvy, amazing, bushy-tailed critters.
In another study with the eastern ground squirrel, one researcher observed a squirrel jumping more than 8 feet between a tree stump and a feeding platform, propelling itself 10 times the length of its body. Flying squirrels, obviously, can traverse much farther distances midair—the northern flying squirrel, for instance, can glide up to feet [ PDF ]. A recent study found that eastern fox squirrels living on UC Berkeley’s campus cache their nuts according to type.
When given a mixture of walnuts, pecans, almonds, and hazelnuts, the squirrels took the time to hide each type of nut in a specific place. This method of “spatial chunking” may help them remember where the nuts are when they go to retrieve them later. Though the study wasn’t able to determine this for sure, the study’s results suggested that the squirrels may have been organizing their caches by even more subtle categories, like the size of the nuts.
A new wave of dating websites, such as OKCupid, emerged in the early s. And the arrival of Tinder changed dating even further. Today, more than one-third of marriages start online. Clearly, these sites have had a huge impact on dating behavior.
The psychology of text relationships. Even though cyberspace is filled with all sorts of sights and sounds – and becoming more multimedia rich every day – most relationships among people form and grow within typed text. E-mail probably accounts for most one-on-one relating, but message boards, chat, and instant messaging also bring people together. Even web sites, especially those of an autobiographical nature, can lead to friendships and romances.
The site starts out as a one-to-many relationship between the creator and the readers – and over time, contact via private e-mail between a reader and the writer refines that relationship and moves it to a more personal, one-on-one level. Such text relationships are not unique to cyberspace.