Background[ edit ] In the Chesapeake Bay region during the 17th century, three different ethnic communities coexisted: Amongst all three of these groups, the smoking of tobacco was common, and all three groups had histories of using clay pipes to smoke the drug. Within 17th-century Chesapeake Bay, there was a significant amount of cooperation and interaction between the members of these different communities, for instance the last pocket of resistance during Bacon’s Rebellion of was recorded as consisting of “eighty Negroes and twenty English” who were cooperating to oppose the Virginia governorship. It would only be in the 18th century that the concept of firmly dividing society up into ethnic groups became acceptable in the region, when laws preventing inter-ethnic marriage were introduced. Emerson argued that some of those slaves purchased in West Africa and transported to North America brought their own pipe-making techniques with them, highlighting the similarities between certain pipe forms found on the two continents. As evidence, he noted that there were 17th-century pipes found in Mali and other parts of the middle Niger River valley that were “nearly identical” to the Chesapeake pipes found in North America. These decorations were produced by incising, stamping or punching into the clay prior to firing it, after which the clay hardened. Various types of decorations were employed in the creation of Chesapeake pipes, including “a range of geometric, figural, and zoomorphic motifs as well as abstract geometric designs.
The tight context of the burial contained glass beads, a stone pipe, a brass collar, brass bells in a fabric bag, flint scrapers and points, a dog head, and a buckskin jacket. The burial was contained in a bark-lined pit. The pipes reported by Webb and Wilder, Lewis and Kneberg and the one recovered by Lee Forsyth all bear a resemblance in decorative form with a peaked edge of the bowl and a crosshatched decoration beneath the bowl.
The Archaeo Clay Tobacco Pipe edited by Peter Davey BAR International Series Pipe-stem fragments and bowl fragments were also found in the fill been found in North American sites dating from the colonial period. and occur as well in West Africa (see, for example, Calvocoressi ). One of the Barbados pipes, however, was remarkably.
A Mayan Jade Hunchback The Big Sandy Point In the study of the typology of projectile points used by prehistoric Americans during the Paleo and Archaic Periods in the Carolinas and Virginia, there seems to be only four types generalized by the point bases. The lanceolate type is straight sided without any notches or stems and is primarily known for the Clovis and Dalton styles of the Paleo Period, circa 10, to 8, BC. After the Paleo Period ended, with the demise of the large megafauna such as Mammouth, Mastodon and Giant Bison, the point types changed to notched bases and later to stemmed points.
The two notched basal types included the corner notched Palmer and Kirk and the side notched styles Hardaway and Big Sandy. These all began during the earliest times in the Archaic Period with a beginning date of at least 8, BC and ending around 6, BC. After that the stemmed type points mostly dominated for the next five or six thousand years. In this region, almost every collector wants to find the Hardaway, Palmer and Kirk points and seems not to care for one of the less common side notched varieties.
But that should not be since one of the most well made and oldest Archaic Period points is the seemingly obscure Big Sandy. The large side notches and the base are usually ground and often quite heavily. The base, which is normally the same width as the blade, may be straight or incurved except for the broad base variety in which the base is considerably wider than the blade, though that may simply mean that the blade width was reduced substantially by re-sharpening rather than the base originally being made wider.
The Big Sandy points were made by percussion flaking followed by pressure edge touch up and the blade cross section can be biconvex, rhomboid or with a median ridge. The point type was made of mostly rhyolite and silicified slate, in the Carolinas and Virginia, and occasionally of quartz, quartzite and jasper.
Antique and Vintage Pipes
Colonial pipes are typically made of ball clay, a kaolinitic sedimentary clay containing varying amounts of mica and quartz Old Hickory Clay Co. Before European production of tobacco, Mesoamericans and subsequent North American Indians smoked tobacco for cultural and sacred purposes Peach State Archaeological Society Tobacco was introduced in England in the s and was commonplace by the early s.
A tobacco pipe, often called simply a pipe, is a device specifically made to smoke tobacco. It comprises a chamber for the tobacco from which a thin hollow stem emerges, ending in a mouthpiece. Pipes can range from very simple machine-made briar models to highly prized hand-made artisanal implements made by renowned pipemakers, which are often very expensive collector’s items. Pipe smoking is the .
Between the initials is the symbol of a dagger above a heart. Both pipe bowl and mark attributed to Bristol pipemaker Richard Berryman Walker Pipemark Crowned rose Relief Crowned rose Relief. On either side of the rose are the numbers 1 and 6. Pipe bowl of Dutch manufacture dating from Duco Mark identified as Dutch and dated by Oswald Incomplete and finely burnished pipe bowl, its form appears similar to Wiltshire or Bristol pipes from the first half of the 17th century.
Stamped on heel with circular pearled bordering. Pipe fragment consists mostly of stem and heel, but origin very likely Dutch. McCashion identifies similar mark as a Dutch thistle
The Ultimate Pipe Shapes Guide
Elizabethan portraits showed gentlemen never ladies hoisting long-stemmed, small-bowled white pipes. In time, the wealthy moved to Meerschaum and briar wood pipes, but the clay variety remained the choice of the working class and in the provinces, and clay pipes are a common find in American archaeology.
How do you know if you have one? Look for the distinguishing characteristics of a clay pipe. First, clay pipes tend to be one piece and without a removable stem.
My CD ROM “The Art & Archaeology of Clay Tobacco Pipes” available only through this website contains lots of useful information as well as thousands of photographs of clay pipes dating from about until the present day.
Abstract There are currently three formula dating techniques available to archaeologists studying 17th and 18th century sites using imported English clay tobacco pipe stems based on Harrington’s histogram of time periods; Binford’s linear formula, Hanson’s formulas and the Heighton and Deagan formula. Pipe stem bore diameter data were collected from 26 sites in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina in order to test the accuracy and utility of the three formula dating methods.
Of the formulas, the Heighton and Deagan proved to be the most accurate, producing formula mean dates closest to the dates assigned to the sites using other dating techniques. It was also determined that all three formula dating methods work better in Maryland and Virginia than in North and South Carolina. Other aspects of pipe stem dating were explored in this paper including regional consumption patterns and the influences Dutch pipes have on formula dating.
These questions were addressed specifically on sites from the Chesapeake. This analysis supports recent assertions that the Chesapeake should be split into two sub-regions, the Upper and Lower Chesapeake.
Dutch clay pipes from Gouda
You can help by adding to it. December Inlayed Pipe Bowl with Two Faces, early 19th century, Brooklyn Museum Some Native American cultures smoke tobacco in ceremonial pipes , and have done so since long before the arrival of Europeans. Other American Indian cultures smoke tobacco socially. Tobacco was introduced to Europe from the Americas in the 16th century and spread around the world rapidly. As tobacco was not introduced to the Old World until the 16th century,  the older pipes outside of the Americas were usually used to smoke various other substances, including hashish , a rare and expensive substance outside areas of the Middle East, Central Asia and India, where it was then produced.
Pipe stem dating The clay pipe industry expanded rapidly as tobacco smoking gained popularity in both England and America. Historical archeologists excavating English colonial sites often find pieces of white clay smoking pipes on their sites. In the s J. C. Harrington studied the.
Introduction The history of Ireland is an old and honorable one; steeped in warfare, family, racial and religious traditions. No other country can compete in comparison. However, the first couple of millennia of Irish history have no relevance to this dating guide. Should you wish to read more on the history of the Irish, I recommend “The Story of the Irish Race” by Seumas MacManus who gives a very vivid, and near as we can tell, an accurate portrayal of their history.
History pertinent to our purposes began in the year ; the year Charles Peterson opened a small tobacco shop in Dublin. In another of Peterson’s remarkable inventions became available, the Peterson-Lip P-Lip mouthpiece, also known as the Steck mouthpiece. So for the purpose of this dating guide, we will study Irish history, relevant to our pipe dating needs, from s until now. Before we start with this Peterson dating guide, an observation; the Kapp Brothers were making pipes as early as the s and in many of the shapes we now associate with Peterson since the Kapp Brothers simply took there existing shapes and incorporated Charles Peterson’ s patented design into them.
Anything But Ordinary
The property was originally patented in the s by Robert Bryan and was eventually part of the adjacent Belle Farm plantation. After the Civil War, the owner of Belle Farm gave each of his freed slaves twenty acres of land, mostly along the north section of Vaughns Creek, in the vicinity of the site. At some point in the 20th century, the land came into the possession of the Walker family, and subsequently was purchased by Mr. Phillips who approached these two talented archaeologists to ask about the artifacts that he had collected from his property.
David and Thane examined the artifacts and suggested a formal survey of the site.
he dating of a pipe fragment relies on assessing a whole range of variables to do with its fabric, manufacturing techniques, bowl form, style, finish, marks and decoration.
For example, the village was inhabited between AD and Absolute dates may be expressed with a standard deviation see Radiocarbon dating. Absolute dating and relative dating are contrasting concepts. Archeopedology The study of ancient soils in an archeological context. Artifacts Portable objects that are used, modified, or created by human activity. Assemblage A collection of artifacts.
Attribute An artifact’s physical property, such as the material s from which the artifact is made, its size, shape, function, and decoration. Backfilling Covering an archeological site with fill to stabilize and preserve it. Cataloging The process of describing and recording an artifact’s many attributes. Ceramics Artifacts that are modeled or molded from clay and then made durable by firing.
Collection Material remains that are excavated or removed during a survey, excavation, or other study of a prehistoric or historic resource, and associated records that are prepared or assembled in connection with the survey, excavation or other study. Compliance work Archeology undertaken to comply with requirements mandated by law.
by Robert F. Marx
Archaeologists analyze multiple clues to date and identify the pipe maker including a careful combination of archaeological site context, bowl style and form, pipe stem bore diameter, style and placement of the mark itself, and place of manufacture. We ask that if you have a nearly complete bowl from which a type can be determined, to use the Oswald typology, but there is also a field to record reference to another typology, should you prefer.
Marks also appear on pipe stems. Marks were produced by molds that left incuse negative or relief raised impressions Oswald In the first half of the 17th century, for both English and Dutch pipes, marks generally appear on the flat base of the heel. In the second half of the 17th century, marks were increasingly placed straddling heels or spurs, on bowls, and on stems.
Clay pipe bowls can be dated with some certainty according to their shape, size and decoration, and with even more accuracy if they feature a maker’s-mark on the ‘heel’, the protrusion under the bowl.
At this time the industry really began to flourish and by the period there were pipe makers in all the major towns and cities. The size of the bowl had doubled to hold more tobacco which had become very affordable and the style of the bowl varied from region to region. Leading centres such as London and Bristol produced elegant slender shapes that contrasted with the thicker rugged looking pipes smoked by country folk.
The photograph here shows a variety of these from locations including London, Bristol, Devon, Wiltshire, Shropshire and the North of England. Hayes Barton in Devon, England. He is also known for making the habit of smoking in England popular in the Tudor period. Religious leaders of the time as well as King James Ist were not keen on the idea of this filthy habit and people were persecuted for smoking.
I wonder what Sir Walter would have to say about the recent smoking bans; history has once again come a full circle. Perhaps blowing bubbles is a healthier option!
J. C. Harrington
Mesopotamia In the museum at Baghdad, in the British Museum , and in the University of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia are finely executed objects in beaten copper from the royal graves at Ur modern Tall al-Muqayyar in ancient Sumer. This relief illustrates the high level of art and technical skill attained by the Sumerians in the days of the 1st dynasty of Ur c. The malleability of unalloyed copper, which renders it too soft for weapons, is peculiarly valuable in the formation of vessels of every variety of form; and it has been put to this use in almost every age.
Hole sizes in Pipe Stems – A way of dating? By Heather Coleman. In the archaeological studies carried out on clay pipes (and believe me there are many!) mathematical formula’s have been applied to explore the possibilities of dating them by the size of the hole in the stem.
This is a guest post from Bryan Schatz. They had an understanding that prolonged satisfaction is greater than the immediate and fleeting gratification we have a tendency to seek today. A pipe requires patience. It instills calmness, observation, and contemplation. A pipe is best enjoyed from the stoop thrones of rocking chairs, beneath the shade of patio roofs and in the absence of unnecessary noise.
Why the Corn Cob Pipe? In my mind, the corn cob pipe is a tangible symbol of a bygone era. Corn cob pipes are the tobacco-smoking instrument of the common man: These were men of thrift, of inherent frugality and of resourcefulness. They are the pipes of hard times, when men knew how to work with their hands, when they did what was required without complaint; when men were hard, lest they perish.
Posted on June 8, by chapmansmill Leave a comment Archaeology volunteer, Paul Antsen, using a quarter inch mesh to find artifacts. In the lab, the pipe stem will be catalogued and analyzed and may even be useful in determining the date of the site. Pipe stem dating The clay pipe industry expanded rapidly as tobacco smoking gained popularity in both England and America. Historical archeologists excavating English colonial sites often find pieces of white clay smoking pipes on their sites.
Hole sizes in Pipe Stems – A way of dating? English Pipes: , , In the archaeological studies carried out on clay pipes (and believe me there are many!) mathematical formula’s have been applied to explore the possibilities of dating them by the size of the hole in the stem.
The idea of smoking tobacco came from the American Indian, who had long fashioned their own clay pipes. These, no doubt served as a model for later pipe development. By tobacco smoking had been introduced to Europe. There is little doubt that the earliest pipes came from England. Pictured above is a British pipe mold that dates to the early ‘s. It is a part of the collection of Steve Beasley, who purchased it while in England.